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TOUS LES ARTICLES :

LE DERNIER N°
• THE GNAOUA
• ARAB-ANDALUSIAN MUSIC
• HISTORY OF A RELIGION

GUIDO N° 45
• TOWARDS CAPE SIM
• DAR SOLTAN AND BORJ EL OUED
• SHELL FISHING
• THE LMAHALOU SPRING

GUIDO N° 44
• THE ZAOUÏAS
• DOORS HAVE THEIR SECRETS
• DATES AND PALM TREES

GUIDO N° 43
• THE TOWNS OF ESSAOUIRA AND SAINT-MALO: TWIN SISTERS OR MIRROR IMAGES OF EACH OTHER ?
• RAFFIA CRAFT MIRO : AN EXCEPTIONAL DESIGNER
• SAFI COASTAL ROAD KASBAH HAMIDOUCH, AGOUZ, SOUIRA KÉDIMA

GUIDO N° 42
• ETERNAL MAGIC YESTERYEAR MEMORIES TODAY’S IMPRESSIONS - !!!!!
• THE SYNAGOGUE SLAT LKALHAL
• SPICES

GUIDO N° 41
• ESSAOUIRA: « A WORLD WITHIN A TOWN »
• THE NATIONAL TEA MUSEUM IN ESSAOUIRA, A CHINESE AND MOROCCAN PARTNERSHIP
• ESSAOUIRA AND ITS REGION ENHANCED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARGAN TREE
• A TOP QUALITY SARDINE

GUIDO N° 40
• UNIQUE MODEL SHIPS IN THE MEDINA!
• AN OUTSTANDING ARGAN TREE! YES, BUT WHY?
• THE DROMEDARY CAMEL AND THE BACTRIAN CAMEL
• LEMONS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

GUIDO N° 39
• EDITO N° 39
• MOULAY HASSAN SQUARE
• BREATHE, SWIM AND MOVE AROUND: SUMMER IS HERE!
• THE GNAOUA AND THE FESTIVAL

GUIDO N° 38
• THE ATTIA SYNAGOGUE: A FUTURE MUSEUM OF JUDAISM?
• THE RETURN OF THE BALD IBIS OR GERONTICUS EREMITA
• AÏN AHJAR OR THE « SOURCE FROM THE ROCKS »

GUIDO N° 37
• PUBLIC LETTER-WRITERS, A LONG LASTING TRADE!!
• THE INLAYERS’ COOPERATIVE
• THE MENZEH (OR WAREHOUSE)
• YENNAYER OR BERBER NEW YEAR OR AMAZIGH
• THE BRIDAL VEIL BROOM OR « BILOUGUI »

GUIDO N° 36
• THE PORTUGUESE CHURCH & THE DANISH CONSULATE
• ELEONORA’S FALCON
• FROM ESSAOUIRA TO SIDI KAOUKI DUNES, DESERTED BEACHES AND FISHERMEN’S VILLAGES

GUIDO N° 35
• REED CRAFTSMEN
• SAFI : THE MEDINA AND THE MARABOUT ALONG THE COAST
• TOWN ZAPPING
• THE TRAVELLER’S TREE OR RAVENALA MADAGASCARIENSIS

GUIDO N° 34
• THE SLAT LAKLHAL SYNAGOGUE
• THE DONKEY: NOT SO STUBBORN!

GUIDO N° 33
• ORGANIC HORSEHAIR : AN OLD STORY!
• FROM OLIVE TO OIL ! : ZITOUN, ZITOUNA, ZIT…
• BLACK OLIVE JAM
• THE TRACKS AROUND SIDI KAOUKI

GUIDO N° 32
• BEACONS AND SEA MARKS : REFERENCE POINTS FOR SAILORS
• WELL BEING CENTRES
• SAFI

GUIDO N° 31
• GNAOUA AND WORLD MUSIC
• A NEW LIFE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL ZONE?
• AZEMMOUR
• THE TAZOTA
• GATHERED IN THE PAPERS AS DAYS WENT BY

GUIDO N° 30
• ESSAOUIRA, THE « EVER-CHANGING »
• THE CAFÉ-HÔTEL AABDI AND THE AABDA TRIBE
• WATCHTOWER-MOUCHARABIEH-PEEPHOLE
• GREEN TOURISM IN IDA OUGOURD
• IN-CITY ZAPPING

GUIDO N° 29
• THE CLOCK
• LA FIXATION DES DUNES À ESSAOUIRA
• THE WATIER STATION - MOULAY BOUZERKTOUN
• BEAUTY SECRETS FROM MOROCCAN WOMEN
• TOWN ZAPPING

GUIDO N° 28
• FESTIVAL OF THE ATLANTIC ANDALUSIAS 2010
• TOWN CHECK
• PARADISE VALLEY

GUIDO N° 27
• THE WOOL SOUK IN ESSAOUIRA, A VANISHING ACTIVITY
• REHABILITATION OF THE ESSAOUIRA MELLAH AND OF THE SCALA AREA
• TAGENZA AND GARA GARA

GUIDO N° 26
• EDITO N° 26
• FLOODING, THE BRIDGES OF DIABET
• THE ZERRAR DAM
• SIDI MOGDUL
• OUALIDIA OR WALIDIA

GUIDO N° 25
• ALICE’S LOOKING GLASS : IOSU URIZ
• THE SOAPS OF MOGADOR

• HAMMAM AND SPA
• ITINERARY IN THE RED TOWN

GUIDO N° 24
• STREET ART
• THE ARGAN OIL FROM SIDI YASSINE
• A TOUR TO NEKNAFA AND ITS « SPA »

GUIDO N° 23
• LOGBOOK ENTRIES : MEMORIES OF THE PORT
• THE SQALAS
• THE WATER
• A TOUR OF THE COASTLINE AROUND ESSAOUIRA

GUIDO N° 22

GUIDO N° 13
• EDITO N° 13

Guido : 46 - ARAB-ANDALUSIAN MUSIC

At-Tarab al-andaloussi or Arab-Andalusian music is more commonly called « Al-âla” which means the “enchantment prompted by Andalusian music”.

This not surprising at all when one knows that it was the musical expression of the very refined Hispano-Maghreb civilization that Morocco essentially inherited.

Arab music unquestionably influenced Spanish music (as we can still see in flamenco) but the opposite is also true as Gregorian chanting reminds us of the fact that the chanting of the first Andalusians was inspired from Christian singing.

Historians tell us that a very talented musician, Ali Ibn Nafi, better known as Ziryab, fled Baghdad and arrived at Harun Al-Rashid court in Cordoba in 822 where he introduced a new way of singing. This composer had a decisive influence on Andalusian music. He was a virtuoso with his lute and he had an encyclopaedic mind : he is supposed to have had a repertoire of 10 000 songs. The musical genre and mode of the old Nubas with their basic rhythmic pattern called “mizan” are still practiced today. In fact the Nuba is a succession of lyrics and music varying in tempo and generally preceded by a prelude called “Elkoursi or elkrissi”. Some movements are entirely musical as in the “Touchia”.

After a very successful period during the reign of the Almoravids (1061-1147), Arab-Andalusian music fell into disrepute completely under the Almohades (1147-1248) as they were very strict in their religion: singers were arrested and musical instruments destroyed. Andalusian music then was covered up behind canticles or “madihs” praising the Prophet.

When Granada fell in 1492, this music experienced a new expansion in Morocco where most of the refugees from Granada had settled and contributed to enrich it. What remained then was from the Seville school of music.
Arab-Andalusian music is part of the heritage of humanity as a first rate musical monument. With the Christian reconquest of Medieval Spain, Morocco inherited several musical trends which crystallized into two main schools: Fez School with two main traditions since the beginning of the 20th century. The El Brihi tradition was carried on with Abd El Karim Raïs and ends up with Mohammed Briouel who distinguishes himself by a high level of musical culture and poetry and by his chosen field of secular concerts and of representing the Royal Palace official music. The latter decidedly followed the new fashion of Arab orchestration in which the instruments of Western string quartets tended to stifle traditional tones.

At the beginning of the 20th century, schools were founded in Fes and Marrakech to spread the teaching of this music. For the first time symposia were held in order to study the means of protecting the Andalusian musical heritage.

It seems that the original characteristics of the Arab-Andalusian music were generally well kept especially in Morocco compared to other countries and it has remained a refined and scholarly art for Moroccan people.

The Moroccan Arab-Andalusian music, a synthesis of traditional Arab, Berber and Spanish music, differs widely from Eastern music. Constant efforts are being made to make it known, to spread it and to protect it in particular through numerous festivals in Morocco as well as in Europe.

The promotion of current practices especially the use of more modern instruments and new interpretations seems to contribute to the protection of this priceless heritage.

This music generally involves the following instruments; the Derbouka, the Tar, the Rebab, the Oud, the Nay (a flute), the Tabilate as well as more recent instruments like the mandolin, the alto, the violin or the cello.

The Daf or Bendir is a round satinwood instrument covered with camel or goatskin where two nylon or gut strings are attached inside in order to balance the vibrations. This instrument is used in all Arab music as well as in Sudan and in Mali but its size may vary; generally it is not included in Gnaoua music. The Bendir provides musical pieces with energy and ensures the complicity between all other instruments.